Ultrasound combined with microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity for enhancement of caffeine extraction from guarana powder

An Acad Bras Cienc. 2024 May 13;96(2):e20230840. doi: 10.1590/0001-3765202420230840. eCollection 2024.


The extraction of valuable compounds from dried fruits and vegetables by microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG) requires previous hydration of the plant material. In this work, ultrasound was used to speed up the hydration of guarana powder before MHG extraction and increase caffeine recovery. The humidification step was speeded up with ultrasound taking only 15 min over 60 min without ultrasound. Water and 50% (v/v) ethanol were evaluated as green solvents for humidification, with a higher concentration of caffeine obtained for the hydroalcoholic solution. Ultrasound pretreatment allowed guarana extracts from MHG with two times more caffeine for both solvents evaluated. Therefore, ultrasound can be used in the hydration step before MHG extraction to reduce time and increase caffeine recovery from guarana powder.

MeSH terms

  • Caffeine* / analysis
  • Caffeine* / isolation & purification
  • Gravitation
  • Microwaves*
  • Paullinia* / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts* / chemistry
  • Powders*
  • Solvents
  • Ultrasonics