Knockout cancer by nano-delivered immunotherapy using perfusion-aided scaffold-based tumor-on-a-chip

Nanotheranostics. 2024 Mar 31;8(3):380-400. doi: 10.7150/ntno.87818. eCollection 2024.


Cancer is a multifactorial disease produced by mutations in the oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, which result in uncontrolled cell proliferation and resistance to cell death. Cancer progresses due to the escape of altered cells from immune monitoring, which is facilitated by the tumor's mutual interaction with its microenvironment. Understanding the mechanisms involved in immune surveillance evasion and the significance of the tumor microenvironment might thus aid in developing improved therapies. Although in vivo models are commonly utilized, they could be better for time, cost, and ethical concerns. As a result, it is critical to replicate an in vivo model and recreate the cellular and tissue-level functionalities. A 3D cell culture, which gives a 3D architecture similar to that found in vivo, is an appropriate model. Furthermore, numerous cell types can be cocultured, establishing cellular interactions between TME and tumor cells. Moreover, microfluidics perfusion can provide precision flow rates, thus simulating tissue/organ function. Immunotherapy can be used with the perfused 3D cell culture technique to help develop successful therapeutics. Immunotherapy employing nano delivery can target the spot and silence the responsible genes, ensuring treatment effectiveness while minimizing adverse effects. This study focuses on the importance of 3D cell culture in understanding the pathophysiology of 3D tumors and TME, the function of TME in drug resistance, tumor progression, and the development of advanced anticancer therapies for high-throughput drug screening.

Keywords: 3D cell culture; in vitro immunotherapy; microfluidics; multicellular tumor; perfusion.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy* / methods
  • Lab-On-A-Chip Devices
  • Neoplasms* / therapy
  • Perfusion
  • Tumor Microenvironment / drug effects