Characteristics of humification, functional enzymes and bacterial community metabolism during manganese dioxide-added composting of municipal sludge

Environ Res. 2024 Jul 1;252(Pt 4):119151. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2024.119151. Epub 2024 May 14.


The aim of this study was to assess effects of MnO2 addition (CK-0%, T1-2% and T2-5%) on humification and bacterial community during municipal sludge (MS) composting. The results suggested that MnO2 addition inhibited the growth of Nitrospira but stimulated Nonomuraea, Actinomadura, Streptomyces and Thermopolyspora, facilitating the lignocellulose degradation and humification with the increase in organic matter degradation by 13.8%-19.2% and humic acid content by 10.9%-20.6%. Compared to CK, the abundances of exoglucanase (EC:, endo-1,4-beta-xylanase (EC: and endomannanase (EC: increased by 88-99, 52-66 and 4-15 folds, respectively. However, 5%-MnO2 induced the enrichment of Mizugakiibacter that harms the environment of agricultural production. The addition of 2%-MnO2 was recommended for MS composting. Furthermore, metabolic function analysis indicated that MnO2 addition altered amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism, especially enhancing propanoate metabolism and butanoate metabolism but inhibiting citrate cycle. Structural equation modeling revealed that Nonomuraea and Actinomadura were the main drivers for lignocellulose degradation. This study provided theoretical guidance in regulating humification via MnO2 for MS composting.

Keywords: Bacterial community structure; Functional enzymes; Humification; Manganese dioxide; Metabolism pathway; Municipal sludge composting.

MeSH terms

  • Actinobacteria
  • Actinomadura
  • Biodegradation, Environmental
  • Composting* / methods
  • Humic Substances
  • Soil
  • Soil Microbiology
  • Streptomyces
  • Waste Disposal, Fluid* / methods


  • manganese dioxide
  • Soil
  • Humic Substances
  • lignocellulose