Meta-analysis of residency program application and acceptance according to sex, race and ethnicity

J Int Med Res. 2024 May;52(5):3000605241244993. doi: 10.1177/03000605241244993.


Objective: We aimed to investigate trends in residency program application and acceptance rates according to sex and race and ethnicity.

Methods: We collected data from the Journal of the American Medical Association Graduation Medical Education Reports. We extracted the data for 25 residency programs in the United States from 2005 to 2021 and conducted statistical analyses.

Results: Men were most matched for orthopedics (84.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 84.2%-85.1%), and women for oncology (78.7%, 95% CI 78.2%-79.2%). The most matched program was orthopedics for the White subgroup (43.5%, 95% CI 43.2%-43.9%), radiology for the Black subgroup (20%, 95% CI 18.9%-20.9%), general surgery for the Hispanic subgroup (11%, 95% CI 10.7%-11.2%), and internal medicine for the Asian subgroup (35.3%, 95% CI 34.9%-35.6%).

Conclusion: Match rates for women were lower than those for men in all programs except psychiatry, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, and dermatology. Match rates were significantly lower for Black, Hispanic, and Asian subgroups than the White subgroup in all programs except for internal medicine, with the Asian subgroup being higher. We observed a significant increase in both application and acceptance rates for women and racial and ethnic minorities over the past 40 years.

Keywords: Residency program; ethnicity; race; residency acceptance; residency application; sex.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis

MeSH terms

  • Ethnicity* / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Internship and Residency* / statistics & numerical data
  • Male
  • Racial Groups / statistics & numerical data
  • Sex Factors
  • United States