NanoMUD: Profiling of pseudouridine and N1-methylpseudouridine using Oxford Nanopore direct RNA sequencing

Int J Biol Macromol. 2024 Jun;270(Pt 2):132433. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2024.132433. Epub 2024 May 15.


Nanopore direct RNA sequencing provided a promising solution for unraveling the landscapes of modifications on single RNA molecules. Here, we proposed NanoMUD, a computational framework for predicting the RNA pseudouridine modification (Ψ) and its methylated analog N1-methylpseudouridine (m1Ψ), which have critical application in mRNA vaccination, at single-base and single-molecule resolution from direct RNA sequencing data. Electric signal features were fed into a bidirectional LSTM neural network to achieve improved accuracy and predictive capabilities. Motif-specific models (NNUNN, N = A, C, U or G) were trained based on features extracted from designed dataset and achieved superior performance on molecule-level modification prediction (Ψ models: min AUC = 0.86, max AUC = 0.99; m1Ψ models: min AUC = 0.87, max AUC = 0.99). We then aggregated read-level predictions for site stoichiometry estimation. Given the observed sequence-dependent bias in model performance, we trained regression models based on the distribution of modification probabilities for sites with known stoichiometry. The distribution-based site stoichiometry estimation method allows unbiased comparison between different contexts. To demonstrate the feasibility of our work, three case studies on both in vitro and in vivo transcribed RNAs were presented. NanoMUD will make a powerful tool to facilitate the research on modified therapeutic IVT RNAs and provides useful insight to the landscape and stoichiometry of pseudouridine and N1-pseudouridine on in vivo transcribed RNA species.

Keywords: Deep learning; Epi-transcriptome; N1-methylpseudouridine; Nanopore direct RNA sequencing; Pseudouridine; mRNA vaccines.

MeSH terms

  • Nanopore Sequencing / methods
  • Nanopores
  • Neural Networks, Computer
  • Pseudouridine* / chemistry
  • RNA / chemistry
  • Sequence Analysis, RNA* / methods


  • Pseudouridine
  • RNA