Ultrasound-assisted extraction of polyphenols from lotus rhizome epidermis by alcohol/salt-based aqueous two-phase system: Optimization, extraction mechanism and antioxidant activities

Food Chem. 2024 Sep 30:453:139620. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2024.139620. Epub 2024 May 17.


In this study, ultrasonic-assisted (UA) alcohol/salt-based aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) method was constructed to extract lotus rhizome epidermis (LRE) polyphenols. The extraction conditions were optimized as salt concentration 26.75 %, ethanol concentration 25.45 %, ultrasonic power 487 W and liquid-solid ratio 35.33 mL/g by comparing response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) models. Then, l-dopa (2.35 ± 0.036 mg/g dw), gallocatechin (1.66 ± 0.0035 mg/g dw) and epigallocatechin (1.37 ± 0.0035 mg/g dw) were determined as major polyphenols in LRE by using UA-ATPS method. Moreover, study showed that ultrasound, van der Waals force, hydrogen bond and salting out could accelerate the mass transfer and extraction of polyphenols in LRE cells. The high-pressure cavity and collapse effect of ultrasound could also accelerate the extraction of polyphenols. In vitro antioxidant experiments showed that LRE polyphenols have good antioxidant ability. In sum, this study developed a green and efficient extraction method to enhance the profitability of LRE in food and medicine industries.

Keywords: Antioxidant activity; Artificial neural network; Genetic algorithm; Lotus rhizome epidermis polyphenols; Response surface methodology; Ultrasonic-assisted aqueous two-phase extraction.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants* / chemistry
  • Antioxidants* / isolation & purification
  • Antioxidants* / pharmacology
  • Ethanol / chemistry
  • Lotus / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts* / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts* / isolation & purification
  • Polyphenols* / chemistry
  • Polyphenols* / isolation & purification
  • Polyphenols* / pharmacology
  • Rhizome* / chemistry


  • Polyphenols
  • Antioxidants
  • Plant Extracts
  • Ethanol