Entanglement in photo-ionization process

Sci Rep. 2024 May 18;14(1):11378. doi: 10.1038/s41598-024-62198-6.


We report a study of the entanglement between the quantized photon field and an atom arising in the photo-ionization process. Our approach is based on an ab initio solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) describing the quantum evolution of a bipartite system consisting of the atom and the quantized electromagnetic field. Using the solution of the TDSE, we calculate the reduced photon density matrix, which we subsequently use to compute entanglement entropy. We explain some properties of the entanglement entropy and propose an approximate formula for the entanglement entropy based on the analysis of the density matrix and its eigenvalues. We present the results of a comparative study of the entanglement in the photo-ionization process for various ionization regimes, including the tunneling and the multiphoton ionization regimes.