Racial and Ethnic Concordance Between the Patient and Anesthesia Team and Patients' Satisfaction With Pain Management During Cesarean Delivery

Anesth Analg. 2024 May 20. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000006764. Online ahead of print.


Background: Racial and ethnic concordance between patients and health care providers increases patient satisfaction but has not been examined in obstetric anesthesia care. This study evaluated the association between racial and ethnic concordance and satisfaction with management of pain during cesarean delivery (PDCD).

Methods: This was a secondary analysis on a cohort of patients undergoing cesarean deliveries under neuraxial anesthesia that examined PDCD. The outcome was satisfaction, recorded within 48 hours after delivery using the survey question, "Overall, how satisfied are you with the anesthesia care during the C-section as it relates to pain management?" Using a 5-point Likert scale, satisfaction was defined with the answer "very satisfied." Participants were also asked, "If you have another C-section, would you want the same anesthesia team?" The exposure was racial and ethnic concordance between the patient and anesthesia team members (attending with a resident, nurse anesthetist, or fellow) categorized into full concordance, partial concordance, discordance, and missing. Risk factors for satisfaction were identified using a multivariable analysis.

Results: Among 403 participants, 305 (78.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 73.8-82.1) were "very satisfied," and 358 of 399 (89.7%; 95% CI, 86.3-92.5) "would want the same anesthesia team." Full concordance occurred in 18 (4.5%) cases, partial concordance in 117 (29.0%), discordance in 175 (43.4%), and missing in 93 (23.1%). Satisfaction rate was 88.9% for full concordance, 71.8% for partial concordance, 81.1% for discordance, and 78.5% for missing (P value = .202). In the multivariable analysis, there was insufficient evidence for an association of concordance with satisfaction. Compared to full concordance, partial concordance was associated with a nonsignificant 57% (95% CI, -113 to 91) decrease in the odds of being satisfied, discordance with a 29% (95% CI, -251 to 85) decrease, and missing with a 39% (95% CI, -210 to 88) decrease. Risk factors for not being "very satisfied" were PDCD, anxiety disorders, pregnancy resulting from in vitro fertilization, intravenous medication administration, intrapartum cesarean with extension of labor epidural, having 3 anesthesia team members (instead of 2), and a higher intraoperative blood loss.

Conclusions: Our inability to identify an association between concordance and satisfaction is likely due to the high satisfaction rate in our cohort (78.2%), combined with low proportion of full concordance (4.5%). Addressing elements such as PDCD, anxiety, intravenous medication administration, and use of epidural anesthesia for cesarean delivery, and a better understanding of the interplay between concordance and satisfaction are warranted.