Emerging Biohybrids of Aptamer-Based Nano-Biosensing Technologies for Effective Early Cancer Detection

Mol Diagn Ther. 2024 Jul;28(4):425-453. doi: 10.1007/s40291-024-00717-x. Epub 2024 May 22.

Abstract

Cancer is a leading global cause of mortality, which underscores the imperative of early detection for improved patient outcomes. Biorecognition molecules, especially aptamers, have emerged as highly effective tools for early and accurate cancer cell identification. Aptamers, with superior versatility in synthesis and modification, offer enhanced binding specificity and stability compared with conventional antibodies. Hence, this article reviews diagnostic strategies employing aptamer-based biohybrid nano-biosensing technologies, focusing on their utility in detecting cancer biomarkers and abnormal cells. Recent developments include the synthesis of nano-aptamers using diverse nanomaterials, such as metallic nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles, carbon-derived substances, and biohybrid nanostructures. The integration of these nanomaterials with aptamers significantly enhances sensitivity and specificity, promising innovative and efficient approaches for cancer diagnosis. This convergence of nanotechnology with aptamer research holds the potential to revolutionize cancer treatment through rapid, accurate, and non-invasive diagnostic methods.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aptamers, Nucleotide* / chemistry
  • Biomarkers, Tumor*
  • Biosensing Techniques* / methods
  • Early Detection of Cancer* / methods
  • Humans
  • Metal Nanoparticles / chemistry
  • Nanostructures / chemistry
  • Nanotechnology / methods
  • Neoplasms* / diagnosis
  • SELEX Aptamer Technique / methods

Substances

  • Aptamers, Nucleotide
  • Biomarkers, Tumor