Being a woman and an orthopaedic surgeon-A primer on the challenges we face

J ISAKOS. 2024 May 20:S2059-7754(24)00095-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jisako.2024.05.008. Online ahead of print.


A higher number of women are graduating from medical schools than men, yet orthopedic surgery continues to register the lowest proportion of female surgeons and residents of the surgical specialties. This trend is observed not only in North America but also globally. The presence of a more diverse workforce has been shown to lead to improved patient outcomes, enhanced efficiencies, and overall wellness within healthcare systems and would be of benefit to the orthopedic surgery profession. This primer aims to provide surgeons and leaders with evidence-based insights into diversity, equity, and equality, as well as define barriers and potential solutions pertaining to women in orthopedic surgery.

Keywords: Barrier; Discrimination; Diversity; Equality; Equity; Gender diversity; Patriarchy.