Slightly viscous dispersions of mucoadhesive polymers as vehicles for nasal administration of dopamine and grape seed extract-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles

Int J Pharm. 2024 Jun 25:659:124255. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2024.124255. Epub 2024 May 22.


With the aim to find an alternative vehicle to the most used thermosensitive hydrogels for efficient nanotechnology-based nose-to-brain delivery approach for Parkinson's disease (PD) treatment, in this work we evaluated the Dopamine (DA) and the antioxidant grape seed-derived pro-anthocyanidins (Grape Seed Extract, GSE) co-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) put in slight viscous dispersions (SVDs). These SVDs were prepared by dispersion in water at low concentrations of mucoadhesive polymers to which SLN pellets were added. For the purpose, we investigated two polymeric blends, namely Poloxamer/Carbopol (PF-127/Carb) and oxidized alginate/Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (AlgOX/HPMC). Rheological studies showed that the two fluids possess Newtonian behaviour with a viscosity slightly higher that water. The pH values of the SVDs were mainly within the normal range of nasal fluid as well as almost no osmotic effect was associated to both SVDs. All the SVDs were capable to provide DA permeation through nasal porcine mucosa. Moreover, it was found that PF-127/Carb blend possesses penetration enhancer capability better than the Alg OX/HPMC combination. Flow cytometry studies demonstrated the uptake of viscous liquids incorporating fluorescent SLNs by human nasal RPMI 2650 cell in time-dependent manner. In conclusion, the SVD formulations may be considered promising alternatives to thermosensitive hydrogels strategy. Moreover, in a broader perspective, such SVD formulations may be also hopeful for treating various neurological diseases beyond PD treatment.

Keywords: Alginate (Compound CID: 91666318); Blend polymers; Carbopol (Compound CID: 91824753); Dopamine; Dopamine hydrochloride (Compound CID: 65340); Fluorescein 5(6)-isothiocyanate (Compound CID: 18730); Grape seed extract; Human RPMI 2650 cells; Hydroxyethyl cellulose (Compound CID: 4327536); PEG-32-stearate (Compound CID: 9004-99-3); Permeation through nasal porcine mucosa; Poloxamer 407 (Compound CID: 10129990); Resazurin (Compound CID: 11077); Slight viscous dispersions; Tween 85 (Compound CID: 9005-70-3).

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Intranasal*
  • Animals
  • Dopamine* / administration & dosage
  • Dopamine* / chemistry
  • Drug Carriers / chemistry
  • Grape Seed Extract* / administration & dosage
  • Grape Seed Extract* / chemistry
  • Humans
  • Lipids / chemistry
  • Liposomes
  • Nanoparticles* / chemistry
  • Nasal Mucosa* / drug effects
  • Nasal Mucosa* / metabolism
  • Poloxamer / chemistry
  • Polymers / chemistry
  • Rheology
  • Swine
  • Viscosity


  • Grape Seed Extract
  • Dopamine
  • Lipid Nanoparticles
  • Poloxamer
  • Drug Carriers
  • Polymers
  • Lipids
  • Liposomes