The Metabolic Functional Feature of Gut Microbiota in Mongolian Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2024 Jun 28;34(6):1214-1221. doi: 10.4014/jmb.2402.02021. Epub 2024 Apr 29.

Abstract

The accumulating evidence substantiates the indispensable role of gut microbiota in modulating the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Uncovering the intricacies of the mechanism is imperative in aiding disease control efforts. Revealing key bacterial species, their metabolites and/or metabolic pathways from the vast array of gut microorganisms can significantly contribute to precise treatment of the disease. With a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Inner Mongolia, China, we recruited volunteers from among the Mongolian population to investigate the relationship between gut microbiota and the disease. Fecal samples were collected from the Volunteers of Mongolia with Type 2 Diabetes group and a Control group, and detected by metagenomic analysis and untargeted metabolomics analysis. The findings suggest that Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla are the predominant gut microorganisms that exert significant influence on the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in the Mongolian population. In the disease group, despite an increase in the quantity of most gut microbial metabolic enzymes, there was a concomitant weakening of gut metabolic function, suggesting that the gut microbiota may be in a compensatory state during the disease stage. β-Tocotrienol may serve as a pivotal gut metabolite produced by gut microorganisms and a potential biomarker for type 2 diabetes. The metabolic biosynthesis pathways of ubiquinone and other terpenoid quinones could be the crucial mechanism through which the gut microbiota regulates type 2 diabetes. Additionally, certain Clostridium gut species may play a pivotal role in the progression of the disease.

Keywords: Clostridium genus; Mongolian; Type 2 diabetes; gut microbiota; metabolic pathway; metabolites.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Bacteria* / classification
  • Bacteria* / genetics
  • Bacteria* / isolation & purification
  • Bacteria* / metabolism
  • Bacteroidetes / genetics
  • Bacteroidetes / isolation & purification
  • Bacteroidetes / metabolism
  • China
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / microbiology
  • Feces* / microbiology
  • Female
  • Firmicutes / isolation & purification
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Metabolic Networks and Pathways
  • Metabolomics
  • Metagenomics
  • Middle Aged
  • Mongolia