Advances in the novel and green-assisted techniques for extraction of bioactive compounds from millets: A comprehensive review

Heliyon. 2024 May 11;10(10):e30921. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2024.e30921. eCollection 2024 May 30.


Millets are rich in nutritional and bioactive compounds, including polyphenols and flavonoids, and have the potential to combat malnutrition and various diseases. However, extracting these bioactive compounds can be challenging, as conventional methods are energy-intensive and can lead to thermal degradation. Green-assisted techniques have emerged as promising methods for sustainable and efficient extraction. This review explores recent trends in employing green-assisted techniques for extracting bioactive compounds from millets, and potential applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The objective is to evaluate and comprehend the parameters involved in different extraction methods, including energy efficiency, extraction yield, and the preservation of compound quality. The potential synergies achieved by integrating multiple extraction methods, and optimizing extraction efficiency for millet applications are also discussed. Among several, Ultrasound and Microwave-assisted extraction stand out for their rapidity, although there is a need for further research in the context of minor millets. Enzyme-assisted extraction, with its low energy input and ability to handle complex matrices, holds significant potential. Pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, despite being a non-thermal approach, requires further optimization for millet-specific applications, are few highlights. The review emphasizes the importance of considering specific compound characteristics, extraction efficiency, purity requirements, and operational costs when selecting an ideal technique. Ongoing research aims to optimize novel extraction processes for millets and their byproducts, offering promising applications in the development of millet-based nutraceutical food products. Therefore, the current study benefits researchers and industries to advance extraction research and develop efficient, sustainable, and scalable techniques to extract bioactive compounds from millets.

Keywords: Assisted extraction; Bioactive; Green techniques; Nutraceuticals; Solvent.

Publication types

  • Review