Italian Association of Hospital Cardiologists Position Paper 'Gender discrepancy: time to implement gender-based clinical management'

Eur Heart J Suppl. 2024 May 16;26(Suppl 2):ii264-ii293. doi: 10.1093/eurheartjsupp/suae034. eCollection 2024 Apr.


It has been well assessed that women have been widely under-represented in cardiovascular clinical trials. Moreover, a significant discrepancy in pharmacological and interventional strategies has been reported. Therefore, poor outcomes and more significant mortality have been shown in many diseases. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences in drug metabolism have also been described so that effectiveness could be different according to sex. However, awareness about the gender gap remains too scarce. Consequently, gender-specific guidelines are lacking, and the need for a sex-specific approach has become more evident in the last few years. This paper aims to evaluate different therapeutic approaches to managing the most common women's diseases.

Keywords: Cardiovascular drugs; Cardiovascular therapy; Gender; Gender differences; Pharmacodynamics; Pharmacokinetics; Sex; Women.