Hyperlipidemia Induced Pathological Changes with no Effect in Biomechanical Properties in the Achilles Tendon of Young Swine

J Orthop Sports Med. 2024;6(2):67-72. doi: 10.26502/josm.511500144. Epub 2024 Apr 22.

Abstract

Hyperlipidemia is linked to atherosclerosis and various diseases. Its strong association with Achilles tendinopathies and xanthomas affects tendon properties through lipid deposition in tendon tissue. We examined the impact of hyperlipidemia on the biomechanical properties of the swine Achilles tendons. Swines were fed a high-cholesterol-high-fat diet to induce hyperlipidemia, and their Achilles tendons were collected and examined for biomechanical properties. The ultimate tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and viscoelastic properties did not exhibit significant differences between hyperlipidemic and control swines. H&E and pentachrome staining revealed extracellular matrix (ECM) disorganization and cellular infiltration in the hyperlipidemic swines, highlighting a marked difference between the control and hyperlipidemic groups. These results suggest hyperlipidemia in young swines alters the tendon composition and may contribute to weak biomechanical properties with time.

Keywords: Achilles tendon; Biomechanics; Dynamic modulus; Hyperlipidemia; Mechanical properties.