Advances in Extraction Protocols, Degradation Methods, and Bioactivities of Proanthocyanidins

Molecules. 2024 May 7;29(10):2179. doi: 10.3390/molecules29102179.


Proanthocyanidins, natural polyphenolic compounds abundantly present in plants, exhibit diverse bioactivities, including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects. These bioactivities are intricately linked to the degree of polymerization of these compounds. Through a comprehensive analysis of recent domestic and international research, this article synthesizes the latest advancements in the extraction process, degradation methods, as well as the biological activities and underlying mechanisms of proanthocyanidins. Furthermore, future research endeavors should prioritize the refinement of extraction techniques, the elucidation of bioactive mechanisms, and the development of formulations with enhanced potency. This will maximize the utilization of proanthocyanidins across diverse applications.

Keywords: bioactivities; degradation; extraction; flavan-3-ols; proanthocyanidins.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / chemistry
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / isolation & purification
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents* / chemistry
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents* / isolation & purification
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents* / pharmacology
  • Antioxidants* / chemistry
  • Antioxidants* / isolation & purification
  • Antioxidants* / pharmacology
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Proanthocyanidins* / chemistry
  • Proanthocyanidins* / isolation & purification
  • Proanthocyanidins* / pharmacology


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Plant Extracts
  • Proanthocyanidins

Grants and funding

The research was supported by the Zhuhai College of Science and Technology “Three Levels” Talent Construction Project.