Extraction of Antioxidants from Brown Macroalgae Fucus spiralis

Molecules. 2024 May 11;29(10):2271. doi: 10.3390/molecules29102271.


In this study, different extraction methods and conditions were used for the extraction of antioxidants from brown macroalgae Fucus spiralis. The extraction methodologies used were ultrasound-assisted extraction (ultrasonic bath and ultrasonic probe), extraction with a vortex, extraction with an Ultra-Turrax® homogenizer, and high-pressure-assisted extraction. The extracts were analyzed for their total phenolic content (TPC) and their antioxidant activity, and evaluated through the 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH) free radical scavenging method and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Ultrasonic probe-assisted extraction yielded the highest values of TPC (94.78-474.16 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract). Regarding the antioxidant activity, vortex-assisted extraction gave the best DPPH results (IC50 1.89-16 µg/mL), while the highest FRAP results were obtained using the Ultra-Turrax® homogenizer (502.16-1188.81 μmol ascorbic acid equivalents/g extract). For each extraction method, response surface methodology was used to analyze the influence of the experimental conditions "extraction time" (t), "biomass/solvent ratio" (R), "solvent" (S, water % in water/ethanol mixture), and "pressure" (P) on TPC, DPPH, and FRAP of the F. spiralis extracts. In general, higher TPC content and higher antioxidant capacity (lower IC50 and higher FRAP) were obtained with higher R, t, and P, and lower S (higher ethanol %). The model regarding the combined effects of independent variables t, R, and S on the FRAP response values for vortex-assisted extractions best fitted the experimental data (R2 0.957), with optimal extraction conditions of t = 300 s, R = 50 g, and S = 25%.

Keywords: antioxidants; extraction optimization; green extraction; macroalgae; response surface methodology.

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants* / chemistry
  • Antioxidants* / isolation & purification
  • Antioxidants* / pharmacology
  • Biphenyl Compounds / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Biphenyl Compounds / chemistry
  • Fucus* / chemistry
  • Phenols / analysis
  • Phenols / chemistry
  • Phenols / isolation & purification
  • Picrates / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Picrates / chemistry
  • Seaweed / chemistry
  • Solvents / chemistry


  • Antioxidants
  • Phenols
  • Biphenyl Compounds
  • Picrates
  • 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl
  • Solvents