Harnessing therapeutic deep eutectic solvents in self-emulsifying systems to improve CBD delivery

Int J Pharm. 2024 May 24:659:124267. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2024.124267. Online ahead of print.


In this study, Cannabidiol crystals (CBD) were used as a BCS class II model drug to generate a novel therapeutic deep eutectic solvent (THEDES) with easy preparation using caprylic acid (CA). The hydrogen bonding interaction was confirmed by different techniques such as FT-IR and NMR, resulting in a hydrophobic system suitable for liquid formulations. The CBD-based THEDES, combined with a specific mixture of surfactants and co-surfactants, successfully formed a self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) that generated uniform nano-sized droplets once dispersed in water. Hence, the THEDES showed compatibility with the self-emulsifying approach, offering an alternative method to load drugs at their therapeutic dosage. Physical stability concerns regarding the unconventional oily phase were addressed through stress tests using multiple and dynamic light scattering, demonstrating the robustness of the system. In addition, the formulated SEDDS proved effective in protecting CBD from the harsh acidic gastric environment for up to 2 h at pH 1.2. Furthermore, in vitro studies have confirmed the safety of the formulation and the ability of CBD to permeate Caco-2 cells when formulated. This investigation highlights the potential incorporation of THEDES in lipid-based formulations like SEDDS, expanding the avenues for innovative oral drug delivery approaches.

Keywords: BCS class II; Cannabidiol; Lipid-based formulation; Oral delivery; Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems; Therapeutic deep eutectic solvents.