Applying the Milan models to setting analytical performance specifications - considering all the information

Clin Chem Lab Med. 2024 May 28. doi: 10.1515/cclm-2024-0104. Online ahead of print.


Analytical performance specifications (APS) are used for decisions about the required analytical quality of pathology tests to meet clinical needs. The Milan models, based on clinical outcome, biological variation, or state of the art, were developed to provide a framework for setting APS. An approach has been proposed to assign each measurand to one of the models based on a defined clinical use, physiological control, or an absence of quality information about these factors. In this paper we propose that in addition to such assignment, available information from all models should be considered using a risk-based approach that considers the purpose and role of the actual test in a clinical pathway and its impact on medical decisions and clinical outcomes in addition to biological variation and the state-of-the-art. Consideration of APS already in use and the use of results in calculations may also need to be considered to determine the most appropriate APS for use in a specific setting.

Keywords: analytical performance specifications; biological variation; laboratory quality; state of the art.