Caffeine: a potential mechanism for anti-obesity

Purinergic Signal. 2024 May 28. doi: 10.1007/s11302-024-10022-1. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Obesity refers to the excessive accumulation of fat caused by a long-term imbalance between energy intake (EI) and energy expenditure (EE). Over recent years, obesity has become a major public health challenge. Caffeine is a natural product that has been demonstrated to exert anti-obesity effects; however, the mechanisms responsible for the effect of caffeine on weight loss have yet to be fully elucidated. Most obesity-related deaths are due to cardiovascular disease. Recent research has demonstrated that caffeine can reduce the risk of death from cardiovascular disease; thus, it can be hypothesized that caffeine may represent a new therapeutic agent for weight loss. In this review, we synthesize data arising from clinical and animal studies over the last decade and discuss the potential mechanisms by which caffeine may induce weight loss, focusing particularly on increasing energy consumption, suppressing appetite, altering lipid metabolism, and influencing the gut microbiota. Finally, we summarize the major challenges associated with caffeine and anti-obesity research and highlight possible directions for future research and development.

Keywords: Appetite; Caffeine; Energy consumption; Lipid metabolism; Obesity.

Publication types

  • Review