Evaluation of Etiological Causes and Factors Affect Length of Hospitalization in Neonates Hospitalized with Lower Respiratory Tract Infection

Sisli Etfal Hastan Tip Bul. 2024 Apr 5;58(1):97-101. doi: 10.14744/SEMB.2023.77674. eCollection 2024.

Abstract

Objectives: This study aims to determine the risk factors by examining the sociodemographic characteristics of infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) due to lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), to determine the factors that affect the duration of hospitalization, and to determine the underlying microbial factors and evaluate them in the light of the literature.

Methods: This study evaluated the data of newborns hospitalized with LTRI between 01 October 2022 and 31 March 2023. Demographic characteristics of the patients detected viral agents, duration of hospitalization and risk factors were recorded in the study form. Babies divided viral LRTI and non-viral LRTI, and then compared with each other. Additionally, the facts that might affect the duration of hospitalization were investigated.

Results: The study included 57 babies. Viral agent was detected in 50.9% of the babies, the most frequently viral agent was respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (48.2%). Other viral factors, in order of frequency; Adenovirus, SARS-CoV-2, Influenza A and B. There is no demographic difference between the viral agent positive and negative groups. The patients were evaluated according to length of hospitalization, it was seen that the hospital stay was longer in babies who were found to be viral positive and needed oxygen therapy (p=0.02, p=0.03, respectively). The male gender ratio was higher in the group with longer hospital stays, but this difference was not statistically significant. Although the rate of exclusive breastfeeding was higher in the group with a short hospitalization period, this difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05).

Conclusion: RSV is currently the most frequently detected viral agent in lower respiratory tract infections in newborns. The hospital stay of babies diagnosed with RSV is longer than those with non-RSV viral agents. So struggling with RSV is important in preventing lower respiratory tract infections in newborns. It is necessary to develop a vaccine or immunoglobulin application against RSV infection not only for preterm babies but also for all newborn babies.

Keywords: Lower respiratory tract infection; RSV; neonatal intensive care unit; newborn.