Evaluation of the Clinical, Laboratory and Radiology Findings and Treatment Methods of Children with Acute Bronchiolitis: Experience of a Tertiary Center

Sisli Etfal Hastan Tip Bul. 2024 Apr 5;58(1):102-108. doi: 10.14744/SEMB.2023.95605. eCollection 2024.

Abstract

Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the factors affecting the duration of hospitalization and causing the initiation of antibiotics in children with acute bronchiolitis.

Methods: This study was conducted retrospectively in Konya Training and Research Hospital. Demographic data, clinical features, laboratory and radiological findings, treatment methods and duration of hospitalization of 102 patients followed up in the pediatric service between September 2017 and April 2019 (in autumn, winter and spring seasons) were recorded from patient files.

Results: 67 (65.7%) of 102 patients were male, and 35 (34.3%) were female. Median age was 6.5 (11.0) months. According to Wang bronchiolitis clinical scoring, 36 (35.3%) of the patients were mild, 51 (50.0%) were moderate, 15 (14.7%) were severe bronchiolitis The most common agents in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were respiratory syncytial virus 60 (58.8%), influenza virus 20 (19.6%), rhinovirus 15 (14.7%), bocavirus 15 (14.7%) and parainfluenza virus 12 (11.7%). The median duration of hospitalization was 7.0 (4.0) days. Forty-two (41.2%) of the patients were hospitalized for ≤5 days, and 60 (58.8%) were hospitalized for >5 days. Duration of hospitalization was significantly and positively correlated with crepitant crackles, leukocytosis, neutrophilia, and coinfection with influenza virus (p=0.036, p=0.034, p=0.028, p=0.036, respectively). Duration of hospitalization was significantly and negatively correlated with pH and increased aeration (p=0.002, p=0.003, respectively) Antibiotic initiation was significantly and positively correlated with wheezing, crepitant crackles, leukocytosis, and neutrophilia (p=0.033, p=0.013, p=0.028, p=0.002, respectively).

Conclusion: A significant relationship was found between crepitant crackles in physical examination, respiratory acidosis in laboratory, co-infection with influenza virus detected by PCR and hospitalization for more than 5 days. A significant relationship was determined between wheezing or crepitant crackles in physical examination, leukocytosis or neutrophilia in laboratory and the initiation of antibiotic.

Keywords: Antibiotic; bronchiolitis; children; hospitalization; respiratory syncytial virus.