[Recommendations for competitive sports eligibility: what's new in the 2023 COCIS protocols]

G Ital Cardiol (Rome). 2024 Jun;25(6):433-440. doi: 10.1714/4269.42467.
[Article in Italian]


The benefit of physical exercise is well established, but, at the same time, it is now well known that an intense sports activity can trigger adverse cardiac events and increase sport-related death. Since 1982, Italy has a State law which obliges athletes to undergo a pre-participation evaluation, based on history, physical examination, ECG and stress test. From its introduction, a significant reduction in cardiac sport-related adverse events has been shown. During the pre-participation screening, some cardiological issues or suspects can arise and the sports medicine doctor should deal with them before releasing the certification for participation in competitive sport. In order to give precious advices to these colleagues and help athletes to securely practice sport, the Italian Society of Sports Cardiology, the Italian Federation of Sports Medicine and the other cardiological scientific societies gathered in the COCIS Committee, periodically produce and publish a booklet named "Cardiological Protocols for Competitive Sports Eligibility". The object of this review is to underline the recent 2023 version innovations when compared to previous editions.

Publication types

  • Review
  • English Abstract

MeSH terms

  • Athletes*
  • Cardiology
  • Death, Sudden, Cardiac / prevention & control
  • Electrocardiography
  • Exercise
  • Exercise Test
  • Humans
  • Italy
  • Physical Examination
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Sports Medicine* / legislation & jurisprudence
  • Sports Medicine* / standards
  • Sports* / legislation & jurisprudence