Biomaterial-Based Therapeutic Delivery of Immune Cells

Adv Healthc Mater. 2024 May 30:e2400586. doi: 10.1002/adhm.202400586. Online ahead of print.


Immune cell therapy (ICT) is a transformative approach used to treat a wide range of diseases including type 1 diabetes, sickle cell disease, disorders of the hematopoietic system, and certain forms of cancers. Despite excellent clinical successes, the scope of adoptively transferred immune cells is limited because of toxicities like cytokine release syndrome and immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity in patients. Furthermore, reports suggest that such treatment can impact major organ systems including cardiac, renal, pulmonary, and hepatic systems in the long term. Additionally, adoptively transferred immune cells cannot achieve significant penetration into solid tissues, thus limiting their therapeutic potential. Recent studies suggest that biomaterial-assisted delivery of immune cells can address these challenges by reducing toxicity, improving localization, and maintaining desired phenotypes to eventually regain tissue function. In this review, recent efforts in the field of biomaterial-based immune cell delivery for the treatment of diseases, their pros and cons, and where these approaches stand in terms of clinical treatment are highlighted.

Keywords: biomaterials; cancers; cell therapies; diabetes; hydrogels; inflammatory diseases.

Publication types

  • Review