Co-pyrolysis of fly ash with sewage sludge for PCDD/F removal

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2024 Jun;31(27):39432-39438. doi: 10.1007/s11356-024-33793-x. Epub 2024 May 31.


Fly ash generated from municipal waste incineration (MWI) contains various toxic substances, and it has to be properly treated before disposal or reuse. Water washing and thermal pyrolysis can improve the destruction efficiency of PCDD/Fs in fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerators. Since sulfur oxides and nitrogen compounds generated by the heating of the sewage sludge poison the catalytic active sites for PCDD/Fs formation on fly ash surface, co-pyrolysis of fly ash with sewage sludge effectively inhibits precursor formation and de novo synthesis reaction, resulting in the great reduction of PCDD/F formation. The results of the pyrolysis at 350 °C show that the PCDD/Fs removal efficiencies based on mass concentration are over 99%. The results at 350 °C of different reaction times show that the reaction time of 10 min is sufficient to reach the European End of Waste criteria (≤ 20 pg TEQ/g) when the ratio of fly ash/sewage sludge is controlled at 1:1.

Keywords: De novo inhibition; Fly ash; PCDD/Fs; Pyrolysis; Sewage sludge.

MeSH terms

  • Coal Ash* / chemistry
  • Incineration*
  • Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins*
  • Pyrolysis*
  • Sewage* / chemistry


  • Coal Ash
  • Sewage
  • Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins