Enzyme-Programmed Self-Assembly of Nanoparticles

Chembiochem. 2024 May 31:e202400384. doi: 10.1002/cbic.202400384. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Nanoparticles are a hot topic in the field of nanomaterial research due to their excellent physical and chemical properties. In recent years, DNA-directed nanoparticle self-assembly technology has been widely applied to the development of numerous complex nanoparticle superstructures. Due to the inherent stability and surface electric repulsion of nanoparticles, it is difficult to make nanoparticle superstructures respond to molecular signals in the external environment. In fact, enzyme-programmed molecular systems are developed to allow diverse functions, including logical operations, signal amplification, and dynamic assembly control. Therefore, combining enzyme-controlled DNA systems may endow nanoparticle assembly systems with more flexibility in program design, allowing them to respond to a variety of external signals. In this review, we summarize the basic principles of enzyme-controlled DNA/nanoparticle self-assembly and introduce its applications in heavy metal detection, gene expression, proteins inside living cells, cancer cell therapy, and drug delivery. With the continuous development of new nanoparticle materials and the increasing functionality of enzyme DNA circuits, enzyme-directed DNA/nanoparticle self-assembled probe technology is expected to see significant future development.

Keywords: DNA cleavage; Enzymes; Nanoparticles; Nanotechnology; self-assembly.