Integrated omics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CENPK2-1C reveals pleiotropic drug resistance and lipidomic adaptations to cannabidiol

NPJ Syst Biol Appl. 2024 May 31;10(1):63. doi: 10.1038/s41540-024-00382-0.


Yeast metabolism can be engineered to produce xenobiotic compounds, such as cannabinoids, the principal isoprenoids of the plant Cannabis sativa, through heterologous metabolic pathways. However, yeast cell factories continue to have low cannabinoid production. This study employed an integrated omics approach to investigate the physiological effects of cannabidiol on S. cerevisiae CENPK2-1C yeast cultures. We treated the experimental group with 0.5 mM CBD and monitored CENPK2-1C cultures. We observed a latent-stationary phase post-diauxic shift in the experimental group and harvested samples in the inflection point of this growth phase for transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis. We compared the transcriptomes of the CBD-treated yeast and the positive control, identifying eight significantly overexpressed genes with a log fold change of at least 1.5 and a significant adjusted p-value. Three notable genes were PDR5 (an ABC-steroid and cation transporter), CIS1, and YGR035C. These genes are all regulated by pleiotropic drug resistance linked promoters. Knockout and rescue of PDR5 showed that it is a causal factor in the post-diauxic shift phenotype. Metabolomic analysis revealed 48 significant spectra associated with CBD-fed cell pellets, 20 of which were identifiable as non-CBD compounds, including fatty acids, glycerophospholipids, and phosphate-salvage indicators. Our results suggest that mitochondrial regulation and lipidomic remodeling play a role in yeast's response to CBD, which are employed in tandem with pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR). We conclude that bioengineers should account for off-target product C-flux, energy use from ABC-transport, and post-stationary phase cell growth when developing cannabinoid-biosynthetic yeast strains.

MeSH terms

  • ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / genetics
  • ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / metabolism
  • Cannabidiol* / pharmacology
  • Drug Resistance, Fungal / genetics
  • Gene Expression Profiling / methods
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal / drug effects
  • Lipidomics* / methods
  • Metabolomics / methods
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins* / genetics
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins* / metabolism
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae* / drug effects
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae* / genetics
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae* / metabolism
  • Transcriptome / drug effects
  • Transcriptome / genetics


  • Cannabidiol
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
  • PDR5 protein, S cerevisiae
  • ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters