Evaluation of Procedure Doses and Staff Attitudes in Interventional Cardiology in Terms of Radiation Safety

Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars. 2024 Jun;52(4):260-268. doi: 10.5543/tkda.2024.18363.


Objective: Ionizing radiation has long been used in the medical field. Catheter laboratories (cath labs) are recognized as areas where radiation exposure is notably high. This study aims to examine the levels of radiation exposure during various interventional procedures to raise awareness of this issue in Türkiye.

Methods: This study evaluated the procedure radiation doses (n = 2804) in the cath labs of four public hospitals with distinct characteristics. Radiation dose evaluation was conducted using Cumulative Air Kerma (CAK). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Kruskal-Wallis H test, independent T-test, and Pearson correlation coefficient were utilized to analyze the data. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Data were analyzed using IBM® Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS®) STATISTICS Version (IBM Corporation, Armonk, New York, USA).

Results: The procedure radiation doses in the cath labs were documented. The findings are largely consistent with the literature. Notably, several outlier cases with extremely high radiation doses were identified [CAK (min-max) = 0.12 - 9.9 Gy]. Procedures such as chronic total occlusion (CTO) [Mean CAK: 3.8 (± 1.5) Gy] and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) [Mean CAK: 1.5 (± 1.4) Gy] were associated with high doses. Additionally, personnel attitudes toward radiation optimization in cath labs were found to be inadequate.

Conclusion: The incidence of high radiation exposure during interventional procedures may be higher than expected in Türkiye. Further research is necessary to identify predictors and implement preventive measures to reduce these rates. For this purpose, establishing diagnostic radiation reference levels (DRLs) could help monitor national radiation levels.

MeSH terms

  • Attitude of Health Personnel
  • Cardiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Occupational Exposure* / prevention & control
  • Radiation Dosage*
  • Radiation Exposure / prevention & control
  • Turkey