Immunotherapy in the context of sepsis-induced immunological dysregulation

Front Immunol. 2024 May 21:15:1391395. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2024.1391395. eCollection 2024.


Sepsis is a clinical syndrome caused by uncontrollable immune dysregulation triggered by pathogen infection, characterized by high incidence, mortality rates, and disease burden. Current treatments primarily focus on symptomatic relief, lacking specific therapeutic interventions. The core mechanism of sepsis is believed to be an imbalance in the host's immune response, characterized by early excessive inflammation followed by late immune suppression, triggered by pathogen invasion. This suggests that we can develop immunotherapeutic treatment strategies by targeting and modulating the components and immunological functions of the host's innate and adaptive immune systems. Therefore, this paper reviews the mechanisms of immune dysregulation in sepsis and, based on this foundation, discusses the current state of immunotherapy applications in sepsis animal models and clinical trials.

Keywords: immunological dysregulation; immunostimulatory therapy; immunosuppressive therapy; immunotherapy; sepsis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptive Immunity
  • Animals
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Immunotherapy* / methods
  • Sepsis* / immunology
  • Sepsis* / therapy

Grants and funding

The author(s) declare that no financial support was received for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.