The effect of education and self-monitoring of blood glucose on glycosylated hemoglobin in type I diabetes. A controlled 18-month trial in a representative population

Acta Med Scand. 1985;217(1):47-53. doi: 10.1111/j.0954-6820.1985.tb01633.x.


The influence on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1) of formal education as compared with self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) was studied in a randomized 18-month trial. All adult type I diabetics in a community were identified. Forty-one of these patients had had diabetes for 20 years or less. Thirty-seven patients were included in the study and finally randomized into four groups. Ten patients received individual formal education followed by SMBG, eight patients were instructed in SMBG without pre-education, nine patients were given only formal education and 10 patients made up a reference group. Education did not improve the mean HbA1 values. SMBG resulted in a decrease by 2% in HbA1, from 12 to 10% (p less than 0.05). The final HbA1 level, however, did not differ significantly between any of the groups. SMBG was accepted by 80% of the patients. The liability to hypoglycemia was about equal in the four groups. It was concluded that SMBG, but not education, improved metabolic control to a certain degree.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / analysis*
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / analysis*
  • Glycosuria / diagnosis
  • Humans
  • Insulin / administration & dosage
  • Male
  • Patient Education as Topic*
  • Reagent Strips


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Insulin
  • Reagent Strips