Standardized evaluation of the extent of resection in glioblastoma with automated early post-operative segmentation

Front Radiol. 2024 May 22:4:1357341. doi: 10.3389/fradi.2024.1357341. eCollection 2024.


Standard treatment of patients with glioblastoma includes surgical resection of the tumor. The extent of resection (EOR) achieved during surgery significantly impacts prognosis and is used to stratify patients in clinical trials. In this study, we developed a U-Net-based deep-learning model to segment contrast-enhancing tumor on post-operative MRI exams taken within 72 h of resection surgery and used these segmentations to classify the EOR as either maximal or submaximal. The model was trained on 122 multiparametric MRI scans from our institution and achieved a mean Dice score of 0.52 ± 0.03 on an external dataset (n = 248), a performance -on par with the interrater agreement between expert annotators as reported in literature. We obtained an EOR classification precision/recall of 0.72/0.78 on the internal test dataset (n = 462) and 0.90/0.87 on the external dataset. Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier curves were used to compare the overall survival between patients with maximal and submaximal resection in the internal test dataset, as determined by either clinicians or the model. There was no significant difference between the survival predictions using the model's and clinical EOR classification. We find that the proposed segmentation model is capable of reliably classifying the EOR of glioblastoma tumors on early post-operative MRI scans. Moreover, we show that stratification of patients based on the model's predictions offers at least the same prognostic value as when done by clinicians.

Keywords: MRI; RANO; deep-learning; early post-operative; extent of resection; glioblastoma; overall survival; segmentation.

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