Pediatric conjunctival melanoma: A comprehensive case report and literature review

Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep. 2024 May 22:35:102075. doi: 10.1016/j.ajoc.2024.102075. eCollection 2024 Sep.

Abstract

Purpose: This case report aims to present a rare instance of conjunctival melanoma in a 5-year-old patient and contribute to the limited body of knowledge on pediatric conjunctival melanoma. The purpose is to understand the characteristics, diagnosis, and management of this uncommon malignancy in young individuals.

Observations: The case describes a 5-year-old female with a progressively growing pigmented conjunctival lesion. The lesion was observed to be located on the temporal conjunctiva of the right eye and displayed distinctive features, including feeder vessels. Imaging revealed specific dimensions of the lesion and ruled out deeper invasions. Histopathological examination revealed architectural and cytologic atypia, positive immunohistochemical staining for HMB-45, and a Ki67 proliferation index of 20 %, confirming the diagnosis of conjunctival melanoma.

Conclusions: Conjunctival melanoma, an uncommon malignancy even more so in pediatric patients, typically presents with pigmented growths and feeder vessels. This case underscores the need for thorough diagnosis and early intervention, as conjunctival melanoma can lead to devastating outcomes. The rarity of such cases limits our understanding of their etiology and progression. This case contributes to the literature on pediatric conjunctival melanoma and reinforces the importance of vigilance in detecting and managing ocular pigmented lesions in children.

Keywords: Conjunctival; Melanoma; Pediatric.

Publication types

  • Case Reports