Digital biomarkers: 3PM approach revolutionizing chronic disease management - EPMA 2024 position

EPMA J. 2024 May 11;15(2):149-162. doi: 10.1007/s13167-024-00364-6. eCollection 2024 Jun.


Non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) have become a major global health concern. They constitute the leading cause of disabilities, increased morbidity, mortality, and socio-economic disasters worldwide. Medical condition-specific digital biomarker (DB) panels have emerged as valuable tools to manage NCDs. DBs refer to the measurable and quantifiable physiological, behavioral, and environmental parameters collected for an individual through innovative digital health technologies, including wearables, smart devices, and medical sensors. By leveraging digital technologies, healthcare providers can gather real-time data and insights, enabling them to deliver more proactive and tailored interventions to individuals at risk and patients diagnosed with NCDs. Continuous monitoring of relevant health parameters through wearable devices or smartphone applications allows patients and clinicians to track the progression of NCDs in real time. With the introduction of digital biomarker monitoring (DBM), a new quality of primary and secondary healthcare is being offered with promising opportunities for health risk assessment and protection against health-to-disease transitions in vulnerable sub-populations. DBM enables healthcare providers to take the most cost-effective targeted preventive measures, to detect disease developments early, and to introduce personalized interventions. Consequently, they benefit the quality of life (QoL) of affected individuals, healthcare economy, and society at large. DBM is instrumental for the paradigm shift from reactive medical services to 3PM approach promoted by the European Association for Predictive, Preventive, and Personalized Medicine (EPMA) involving 3PM experts from 55 countries worldwide. This position manuscript consolidates multi-professional expertise in the area, demonstrating clinically relevant examples and providing the roadmap for implementing 3PM concepts facilitated through DBs.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence; Cancer; Cardiovascular diseases; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Diabetes; Digital biomarkers; Health economy and policy; Health protection; Health risk assessment; Health-to-disease transition; Innovative ecosystem; Machine learning; Non-communicable chronic disease; PPPM / 3PM; Perinatal asphyxia; Predictive Preventive Personalized Medicine; Primary and secondary care; Sleep disorders; Wearable point-of-care devices.