Biosorption of copper, nickel, and manganese as well as the production of metal nanoparticles by Bacillus species isolated from soils contaminated with electronic wastes

Braz J Microbiol. 2024 Jun 6. doi: 10.1007/s42770-024-01369-z. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Improper electronic waste management in the world especially in developing countries such as Iran has resulted in environmental pollution. Copper, nickel, and manganese are from the most concerned soil contaminating heavy metals which found in many electronic devices that are not properly processed. The aim of this study was to investigate the biological removal of copper, nickel, and manganese by Bacillus species isolated from a landfill of electronic waste (Zainal Pass hills located in Isfahan, Iran) which is the and to produce nanoparticles from the studied metals by the isolated bacteria. The amounts of copper, nickel, and manganese in the soil was measured as 1.9 × 104 mg/kg, 0.011 × 104 mg/kg and 0.013 × 104 mg/kg, respectively based on ICP-OES analysis, which was significantly higher than normal (0.02 mg/kg, 0.05 mg/kg, and 2 mg/kg, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of metals on the bacterial isolates was determined. The biosorption of metals by the bacteria was evaluated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The metal nanoparticles were synthetized utilizing the isolates in culture media containing the heavy metals with the concentrations to which the isolates had shown resistance. X ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used for the evaluation of the fabrication of the produced metal nanoparticles. Based on the findings of this study, a total of 15 bacterial isolates were obtained from the soil samples. The obtained MICs of copper, nickel, and manganese on the isolates were 40-300 mM, 4-10 mM, and 60-120 mM, respectively. The most resistant isolates to copper were FM1 and FM2 which were able to bio-remove 79.81% and 68.69% of the metal, respectively. FM4 and FM5 were respectively the most resistant isolate to nickel and manganese and were able to bio-remove 86.74% and 91.96% of the metals, respectively. FM1, FM2, FM4, and FM5 was molecularly identified as Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus paramycoides, and Bacillus wiedmannii, respectively. The results of XRD, SEM and EDS showed conversion of the copper and manganese into spherical and oval nanoparticles with the approximate sizes of 20-40 nm. Due to the fact that the novel strains in this study showed high resistance to copper, nickel, and manganese and high adsorption of the metals, they can be used in the future, as suitable strains for the bio-removal of these metals from electronic and other industrial wastes.

Keywords: Biosorption; Electronic waste; Heavy metal resistant bacteria; Nanoparticle biosynthesis.