Sensitivity-Enhancing Strategies of Graphene Field-Effect Transistor Biosensors for Biomarker Detection

ACS Sens. 2024 Jun 28;9(6):2705-2727. doi: 10.1021/acssensors.4c00322. Epub 2024 Jun 6.


The ultrasensitive recognition of biomarkers plays a crucial role in the precise diagnosis of diseases. Graphene-based field-effect transistors (GFET) are considered the most promising devices among the next generation of biosensors. GFET biosensors possess distinct advantages, including label-free, ease of integration and operation, and the ability to directly detect biomarkers in liquid environments. This review summarized recent advances in GFET biosensors for biomarker detection, with a focus on interface functionalization. Various sensitivity-enhancing strategies have been overviewed for GFET biosensors, from the perspective of optimizing graphene synthesis and transfer methods, refinement of surface functionalization strategies for the channel layer and gate electrode, design of biorecognition elements and reduction of nonspecific adsorption. Further, this review extensively explores GFET biosensors functionalized with antibodies, aptamers, and enzymes. It delves into sensitivity-enhancing strategies employed in the detection of biomarkers for various diseases (such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, infectious viruses, etc.) along with their application in integrated microfluidic systems. Finally, the issues and challenges in strategies for the modulation of biosensing interfaces are faced by GFET biosensors in detecting biomarkers.

Keywords: antibodies; aptamers; biomarker; biosensor; enzymes; graphene field-effect transistor; interface functionalization; microfluidic systems; sensitivity-enhancing strategies.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers* / analysis
  • Biosensing Techniques* / instrumentation
  • Biosensing Techniques* / methods
  • Graphite* / chemistry
  • Humans
  • Transistors, Electronic*


  • Graphite
  • Biomarkers