Autochtonal case of chronic, unifocal, pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis with methotrexate use, in Salvador ‒ Brazil

Braz J Infect Dis. 2024 May-Jun;28(3):103768. doi: 10.1016/j.bjid.2024.103768. Epub 2024 Jun 5.


We report an autochthonous case of mild unifocal chronic pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis in a 48-year-old previously healthy woman with no history of possible environmental exposures in endemic rural areas, supposedly resulting from reactivation of a latent pulmonary focus secondary to the use of methotrexate for the control of Chikungunya arthropathy. Laboratory investigation ruled out other immunosuppression. Her only symptoms were a dry cough and chest pain. Diagnosis confirmed by needle lung biopsy. There were no abnormalities on physical examination nor evidence of central nervous system involvement. MRI of the total abdomen showed no involvement of other organs. Computed chest tomography showed a favorable evolution under the use of itraconazole (200 mg/day). Different tomographic presentations findings are highlighted when performed before and after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: PCM should be considered even in a woman without a history of consistent environmental exposure and in a non-endemic geographic area.

Keywords: Chronic pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis; Epidemiology; Immunosuppression; Radiological findings.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use
  • Chronic Disease
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Itraconazole / therapeutic use
  • Lung Diseases, Fungal* / drug therapy
  • Methotrexate* / adverse effects
  • Methotrexate* / therapeutic use
  • Middle Aged
  • Paracoccidioidomycosis* / drug therapy
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed


  • Methotrexate
  • Itraconazole
  • Antifungal Agents
  • Immunosuppressive Agents