Second primary non-breast cancers in young breast cancer survivors

Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2024 Jun 10. doi: 10.1007/s10549-024-07400-z. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Purpose: We evaluated the incidence, timing, and risk factors for second primary non-breast cancers (SPNBC) among young breast cancer (BC) survivors.

Methods: This study included participants of the Young Women's BC Study (YWS) who were diagnosed with stage 0-III BC between 2006 and 2016 and age 40 or younger at diagnosis (N = 1,230). Patient characteristics, treatment information, and clinical events were collected via serial surveys. Tumor and treatment data were obtained from medical record review. Five- and 10-year risks of SPNBCs were estimated via the cumulative incidence function, considering death, metastasis, or second primary BC as competing events. Fine and Gray subdistribution hazard models estimated subdistribution hazard ratios (sHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for SPNBC risk based on risk factors including demographics, germline genetics, primary BC characteristics, and treatments.

Results: Among 1,230 women, over a median follow-up of 10.1 years, 47 patients (4%) developed an SPNBC. Types of malignancy included melanoma (n = 10), thyroid (n = 10), ovarian (n = 4), sarcoma (n = 4), uterine (n = 3), rectal (n = 3), bladder (n = 2), cervical (n = 2), head/neck (n = 2), lung (n = 2), lymphoma (n = 2), pancreatic (n = 2), and renal (n = 1). Five and 10-year cumulative incidence were 1.4% and 3.2%, respectively. Median time between primary BC and SPNBC was 7.3 years. No patient factors, primary tumor characteristics, or treatments were statistically significantly associated with SPNBC in univariable or multivariable models.

Conclusion: In this population, five-year cumulative incidence was higher than that reported among healthy women under 50 years of age, highlighting the importance of long-term surveillance for new non-breast cancers in young adult BC survivors.

Keywords: Breast cancer survivors; Second primary cancer risk; Young women.