Whole-genome sequencing identifies variants in ANK1, LRRN1, HAS1, and other genes and regulatory regions for stroke in type 1 diabetes

Sci Rep. 2024 Jun 11;14(1):13453. doi: 10.1038/s41598-024-61840-7.


Individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) carry a markedly increased risk of stroke, with distinct clinical and neuroimaging characteristics as compared to those without diabetes. Using whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing of 1,051 individuals with T1D, we aimed to find rare and low-frequency genomic variants associated with stroke in T1D. We analysed the genome comprehensively with single-variant analyses, gene aggregate analyses, and aggregate analyses on genomic windows, enhancers and promoters. In addition, we attempted replication in T1D using a genome-wide association study (N = 3,945) and direct genotyping (N = 3,263), and in the general population from the large-scale population-wide FinnGen project and UK Biobank summary statistics. We identified a rare missense variant on SREBF1 exome-wide significantly associated with stroke (rs114001633, p.Pro227Leu, p-value = 7.30 × 10-8), which replicated for hemorrhagic stroke in T1D. Using gene aggregate analysis, we identified exome-wide significant genes: ANK1 and LRRN1 displayed replication evidence in T1D, and LRRN1, HAS1 and UACA in the general population (UK Biobank). Furthermore, we performed sliding-window analyses and identified 14 genome-wide significant windows for stroke on 4q33-34.1, of which two replicated in T1D, and a suggestive genomic window on LINC01500, which replicated in T1D. Finally, we identified a suggestively stroke-associated TRPM2-AS promoter (p-value = 5.78 × 10-6) with borderline significant replication in T1D, which we validated with an in vitro cell-based assay. Due to the rarity of the identified genetic variants, future replication of the genomic regions represented here is required with sequencing of individuals with T1D. Nevertheless, we here report the first genome-wide analysis on stroke in individuals with diabetes.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Ankyrins* / genetics
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / genetics
  • Female
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease*
  • Genome-Wide Association Study*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Membrane Proteins / genetics
  • Middle Aged
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid / genetics
  • Stroke* / genetics
  • Whole Genome Sequencing*


  • ANK1 protein, human
  • Ankyrins
  • Membrane Proteins
  • LRRN1 protein, human
  • HAS1 protein, human