Hemodynamic Stroke: Emerging Concepts, Risk Estimation, and Treatment

Stroke. 2024 Jul;55(7):1940-1950. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.123.044386. Epub 2024 Jun 12.


Ischemic stroke can arise from the sudden occlusion of a brain-feeding artery by a clot (embolic), or local thrombosis. Hemodynamic stroke occurs when blood flow does not sufficiently meet the metabolic demand of a brain region at a certain time. This discrepancy between demand and supply can occur with cerebropetal arterial occlusion or high-grade stenosis but also arises with systemic conditions reducing blood pressure. Treatment of hemodynamic stroke is targeted toward increasing blood flow to the affected area by either systemically or locally enhancing perfusion. Thus, blood pressure is often maintained above normal values, and extra-intracranial flow augmentation bypass surgery is increasingly considered. Still, current evidence supporting the superiority of pressure or flow increase over conservative measures is limited. However, methods assessing hemodynamic impairment and identifying patients at risk of hemodynamic stroke are rapidly evolving. Sophisticated models incorporating clinical and imaging factors have been suggested to aid patient selection. In this narrative review, we provide current state-of-the-art knowledge about hemodynamic stroke, tools for assessment, and treatment options.

Keywords: hemodynamics; ischemia recurrence; neuroimaging; stroke risk prediction; thrombosis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cerebrovascular Circulation / physiology
  • Hemodynamics* / physiology
  • Humans
  • Ischemic Stroke / physiopathology
  • Ischemic Stroke / therapy
  • Risk Assessment
  • Stroke / physiopathology
  • Stroke / therapy