MRI susceptibility artefacts caused by orthodontic wire

Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2024 Jun 13:twae023. doi: 10.1093/dmfr/twae023. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Objectives: To evaluate magnetic susceptibility artefacts produced by orthodontic wires on MRI and the influence of wire properties and MRI image sequences on the magnitude of the artefact.

Methods: Arch form orthodontic wires [four stainless steels (SS), one cobalt chromium (CC) alloy, 13 titanium (Ti) alloys] were embedded in a polyester phantom, and scanned using a 1.5-T superconducting magnet scanner with an eight-channel phased-array coil. All wires were scanned with T1-weighted spin echo (SE) and gradient echo (GRE) sequences according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) F2119-07 standard. The phantom was also scanned other eight sequences. Artefacts were measured using the ASTM F2119-07 definition and OsiriX software. Artefact volume was analyzed according to metal composition, wire length, number of wires, wire thickness, and imaging sequence as factors.

Results: With SE/GRE, black/white artefacts volumes from all SS wires were significantly larger than those produced by CC and Ti wires (P < 0.01). With the GRE, the black artefacts volume was highest with the SS wires. With the SE, the black artefacts volume was small, whereas white artefacts were noticeable. The cranio-caudal extent of the artefacts was significantly longer with SS wires (P < 0.01). Although a direct relationship of wire length, number of wires and wire thickness with artefact volume was noted, these factors did not influence artefact extension in the cranio-caudal direction.

Conclusions: Ferromagnetic/paramagnetic orthodontic wires create artefacts due to local alteration of magnetic field homogeneity. The SS-type wires produced the largest artefacts followed by CC and Ti.

Keywords: Artefacts; Image sequences; MRI; Magnetic susceptibility; Orthodontic wire.