The authors report their 6 years experience in the use of a CPAP nasal cannula in 91 children. Their indications are idiopathic respiratory distress (hyaline membrane disease) stage I, II, III in children more than 1500 g, stage I and II for those less than 1500 g; transitory respiratory distress; cesarean lung; amniotic inhalation after aspiration and physiotherapy. In 75 newborns this method rendered tracheal intubation unnecessary. There were few side effects and very few serious accidents. The authors propose this method to be a substitute to tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation, for the units of neonatal intensive care, or nurseries, specially in tropical countries, without important medical supplies. They give modalities, indications and applications of this innocuousness, easy and non-expensive method.