Temperature dependence of the rain-gas and snow-gas partition coefficients for nearly a thousand chemicals

Chemosphere. 2024 Jun 11:362:142565. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2024.142565. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Compared to the particle-gas partition coefficients (KPG), the rain-gas (KRG) and snow-gas (KSG) partition coefficients are also essential in studying the environmental behavior and fate of chemicals in the atmosphere. While the temperature dependence for the KPG have been extensively studied, the study for KRG and KSG are still lacking. Adsorption coefficients between water surface-air (KIA) and snow surface-air (KJA), as well as partition coefficients between water-air (KWA) and octanol-air (KOA) are vital in calculating KRG and KSG. These four basic adsorption and partition coefficients are also temperature-dependent, given by the well-known two-parameters Antoine equation logKXY = AXY + BXY/T, where KXY is the adsorption or partition coefficients, AXY and BXY are Antoine parameters (XY stand for IA, JA, WA, and OA), and T is the temperature in Kelvin. In this study, the parameters AXY and BXY are calculated for 943 chemicals, and logKXY can be estimated at any ambient temperature for these chemicals using these Antoine parameters. The results are evaluated by comparing these data with published experimental and modeled data, and the results show reasonable accuracy. Based on these coefficients, temperature-dependence of logKRG and logKSG is studied. It is found that both logKRG and logKSG are linearly related to 1/T, and Antoine parameters for logKRG and logKSG are also estimated. Distributions of the 943 chemicals in the atmospheric phases (gas, particle, and rain/snow), are illustrated in a Chemical Space Map. The findings reveal that, at environmental temperatures and precipitation days, the dominant state for the majority of chemicals is the gaseous phase. All the AXY and BXY values for logKSG, logKRG, and basic adsorption and partition coefficients, both modeled by this study and collected from published work, are systematically organized into an accessible dataset for public utilization.

Keywords: Adsorption coefficients; Antoine parameters; Partition coefficients; Rain-gas partition; Snow-gas partition; Temperature-dependent.