Understanding Fibrous Tissue in the Effective Healing of Rotator Cuff Injury

J Surg Res (Houst). 2024;7(2):215-228. doi: 10.26502/jsr.10020363. Epub 2024 May 21.


The rotator cuff is a crucial group of muscles and tendons in the shoulder complex that plays a significant role in the stabilization of the glenohumeral joint and enabling a wide range of motion. Rotator cuff tendon tears can occur due to sudden injuries or degenerative processes that develop gradually over time, whether they are partial or full thickness. These injuries are common causes of shoulder pain and functional impairment, and their complex nature highlights the essential role of the rotator cuff in shoulder function. Scar formation is a crucial aspect of the healing process initiated following a rotator cuff tendon tear, but excessive fibrous tissue development can potentially lead to stiffness, discomfort, and movement limitations. Age is a critical risk factor, with the prevalence of these tears increasing among older individuals. This comprehensive review aims to delve deeper into the anatomy and injury mechanisms of the rotator cuff. Furthermore, it will inspect the signaling pathways involved in fibrous tissue development, evaluate the various factors affecting the healing environment, and discuss proactive measures aimed at reducing excessive fibrous tissue formation. Lastly, this review identifed gaps within existing knowledge to advance methods for better management of rotator cuff tendon injuries.

Keywords: Collagen; Fibrous tissue; Pathways; Rotator cuff; Tendons.