Functioning and quality of life among treatment-engaged adults with psychotic disorders in urban Tanzania: Baseline results from the KUPAA clinical trial

PLoS One. 2024 Jun 18;19(6):e0304367. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0304367. eCollection 2024.


Background: There is a treatment gap for those living with severe mental illnesses in low- and middle-income countries, yet not enough is known about those who are currently accessing clinical services. A better understanding of potentially modifiable factors associated with functioning and quality of life will help inform policies and programming.

Aims: To describe the functioning and quality of life for a psychiatric treatment-engaged population living with psychotic disorders in two urban areas of Tanzania, and to explore their respective correlates.

Methods: This study analyzed cross-sectional data from 66 individuals enrolled in the Kuwezeshana Kupata Uzima (KUPAA) pilot clinical trial who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, recent relapse, and who were receiving outpatient treatment. Baseline functioning (WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0) and quality of life (WHO Quality of Life BREF scale) were measured. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses were conducted to determine correlates of functioning and quality of life.

Results: Adjusted analyses indicated that higher disability was associated with higher food insecurity, more symptomatology, more self-stigma, less instrumental support, less hope, lower self-efficacy, and/or lower levels of family functioning. Higher quality of life was associated with higher levels of self-efficacy, more hopefulness, more instrumental support, less self-stigma, and better family functioning.

Conclusions: Identification of factors associated with disability and quality of life can help clinicians and policymakers, as well as consumers of mental health services, to better co-design and target psychosocial interventions to optimize their impact in low-resource settings.

Trial registration: Trial registration: # NCT04013932, July 10, 2019.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Psychotic Disorders* / psychology
  • Psychotic Disorders* / therapy
  • Quality of Life*
  • Schizophrenia / therapy
  • Tanzania
  • Urban Population
  • Young Adult

Associated data