Perfluoroalkyl substances in the meat of Polish farm animals and game - Occurrence, profiles and dietary intake

Sci Total Environ. 2024 Oct 1:945:174071. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2024.174071. Epub 2024 Jun 17.


Meat from farm animals (pigs, cattle and poultry) and game (wild boar and deer) was analysed in terms of thirteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Wild boar muscle tissue was statistically significantly more contaminated than muscle tissue from other animals, and the species order of the lower-bound (LB) sum of four (∑4) PFAS (perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorononanoic acid and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid) concentrations was wild boar > cattle > deer > pigs > poultry. None of the samples exceeded the maximum levels set by Commission Regulation (EU) 2023/915. Linear PFOS was the most frequently detected compound (in 21 % of all samples analysed and 100 % of wild boar samples), reaching its highest concentration of 1.87 μg/kg wet weight in wild boar. Dietary intake was estimated on the basis of the average per-serving consumption of pork, beef and poultry, and in the absence of such data for game, a 100 g portion was used for the calculation. Mean LB∑4 PFAS concentrations led to intakes between 0.000 and 1.75 ng/kg body weight (BW) for children and 0.000 and 0.91 ng/kg BW for adults. The potential risk to consumers was assessed in relation to the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 4.4 ng/kg BW established by the European Food Safety Authority in 2020. Exposure associated with the consumption of poultry, pork, beef and venison was negligible, being only <1 % of the TWI for children and adults; higher exposure was found to associate with the consumption of wild boar, being 63 % and 21 % of the TWI for children and adults, respectively. The findings of this research suggest that the intake of PFASs through the consumption of meat from Polish livestock and deer is unlikely to be a health concern. However, frequent consumption of wild boar meat could be a significant source of PFASs.

Keywords: Dietary intake; Game animals; Meat; PFAS.

MeSH terms

  • Alkanesulfonic Acids* / analysis
  • Animals
  • Animals, Domestic
  • Caprylates / analysis
  • Cattle
  • Deer
  • Dietary Exposure / analysis
  • Dietary Exposure / statistics & numerical data
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Environmental Pollutants / analysis
  • Fluorocarbons* / analysis
  • Food Contamination / analysis
  • Food Contamination / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Meat* / analysis
  • Poland
  • Poultry
  • Sulfonic Acids
  • Sus scrofa
  • Swine


  • Fluorocarbons
  • Alkanesulfonic Acids
  • perfluorooctane sulfonic acid
  • Caprylates
  • Environmental Pollutants
  • perfluorooctanoic acid
  • perfluorohexanesulfonic acid
  • Sulfonic Acids