Full-thickness canine cortical allografts were cleanly harvested, sterilized with ethylene oxide, and stored at room temperature. The allografts were incorporated into canine segmental femoral fracture repairs and compared clinically, radiographically, and morphologically with control femoral cortical autografts for function of the limb, graft acceptance, and bone union. Sterility was maintained and the cortical allografts were well accepted by the host animals, resulting in full use of the limb which was subjected to surgical operation. The allografts showed healing patterns similar to those of the autografts, as determined by radiographic, gross, and histologic evaluation of the proximal and distal host-graft interfaces. Evaluations were made monthly. The host-graft interfaces of the allografts and autograft were filled with woven bone with adjacent vascular invasion and remodeling of the graft at the final 4th-month evaluation.