Frailty in Kidney Disease: A Comprehensive Review to Advance Its Clinical and Research Applications

Am J Kidney Dis. 2024 Jun 19:S0272-6386(24)00836-9. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2024.04.018. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Frailty is a multi-system syndrome of decreased physiologic reserve that has been shown to strongly and independently predict morbidity and mortality. Frailty is prevalent in patients living with kidney disease and occurs earlier in individuals with kidney disease as compared to the general population. In this comprehensive review, we aim to advance the clinical and research applications of frailty in kidney disease populations. Specifically, we clarify the definition of frailty and address its common misconceptions; review the mechanisms and epidemiology of frailty in kidney disease; discuss challenges and limitations in frailty measurement; and provide updated evidence related to risk factors for frailty, its associated adverse outcomes, and interventions. We further add to the literature in this topic by highlighting potential applications of frailty measurement in care of patients with kidney disease and conclude with our recommendations for future research related to this important syndrome.

Keywords: aging; frailty; geriatrics; kidney disease; older adults.

Publication types

  • Review