Association of enzymatic and optimized ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction of flavonoid glycosides from dried Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Sea Buckthorn) berries

Ultrason Sonochem. 2024 Jun 15:108:106955. doi: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2024.106955. Online ahead of print.


The main purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of associating an optimized ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) protocol with enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) in aqueous media, using the dried berries of Hippophae rhamnoides L. (sea buckthorn) as plant material. A specialized software was used for the determination of potential optimal extraction parameters, leading to the development of four optimized extracts with different characteristics (UAE ± EAE). For these extracts, buffered or non-buffered solutions have been used, with the aim to determine the influence of adjustable pH on extractability. As enzymatic solution, a pectinase, cellulase, and hemicellulase mix (2:1:1) has been applied, acting as pre-treatment for the optimized protocol. The highest extractive yields have been identified for non-buffered extracts, and the E-UAE combination obtained extracts with the highest overall in vitro antioxidant activity. The HPLC-MSn analysis demonstrated a rich composition in different types of isorhamnetin-O-glycosides, as well as some quercetin-O-glycosides, showing a high recovery of specific flavonol-type polyphenolic species. Moreover, we have tentatively identified two flavanols (i.e., catechin and epigallocatechin) and one flavone derivative (i.e., luteolin).

Keywords: EAE; Flavonols; H. rhamnoides; Isorhamnetin; Optimization; UAE.