Assessing the association between e-cigarette use and cardiovascular disease: A meta-analysis of exclusive and dual use with combustible cigarettes

Addict Behav. 2024 Jun 8:157:108086. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2024.108086. Online ahead of print.


Background: Growing evidence highlights the impact of e-cigarette use on cardiovascular health, prompting a crucial examination of its association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in both exclusive e-cigarette and dual use scenarios with combustible cigarettes. This meta-analysis assessed the association between e-cigarette use and CVD by synthesizing the existing literature.

Methods: Pertinent observational studies were identified using multiple electronic databases, from August 22nd, 2006, to April 10th, 2024. A meta-analysis was conducted using random-effect models. Risk of bias was assessed using the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Study Quality Assessment Tools.

Findings: A total of 20 observational studies involving 8,499,444 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Dual use (e-cigarettes and combustible cigarette) increased the odds of CVD by 2.56 times (95 % CI: 2.11, 3.11) compared to never use of both. Current e-cigarette use combined with former combustible cigarette increased the odds of CVD by 2.02 times (95 % CI: 1.58, 2.58) compared to never use of either. Exclusive current e-cigarette use did not show a statistically significant association with CVD odds compared to never use of either (OR = 1.24, 95 % CI: 0.93, 1.67).

Conclusions: Dual use of e-cigarettes and combustible cigarettes was significantly associated with CVD, but results failed to show a significant association between exclusive e-cigarette use and CVD. Robust and longitudinal studies are needed to understand the long-term implications of e-cigarette use and CVD. Public health efforts should focus on awareness, smoking cessation, and regulating both e-cigarettes and combustible cigarettes.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease; Dual use; Electronic cigarettes; Exclusive use; Meta-analysis; Systematic review.

Publication types

  • Review