Valorization of Sour Cherry Kernels: Extraction of Polyphenols Using Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents (NADESs)

Molecules. 2024 Jun 11;29(12):2766. doi: 10.3390/molecules29122766.


The objective of this research was to optimize the natural deep eutectic solvent (NADES) extraction process from sour cherry kernels (Prunus cerasus L.). For polyphenol isolation, conventional solid-liquid extraction was employed using different concentrations of ethanol (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 96%), as well as the innovative NADES extraction technique. In the initial phase of the research, a screening of 10 different NADESs was conducted, while extraction was carried out under constant parameters (50 °C, 1:20 w/w, 60 min). NADES 4, composed of lactic acid and glucose in a molar ratio of 5:1, exhibited the highest efficiency in the polyphenol isolation. In the subsequent phase of the research, response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to optimize the extraction process. Three independent variables, namely temperature, extraction time, and solid-liquid (S/L) ratio, were examined at three different levels. The extracted samples were analyzed for total phenol (TP) and antioxidant activity using the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. ANOVA and descriptive statistics (R2 and CV) were performed to fit the applied model. According to RSM, the optimal extraction conditions were determined as follows: temperature of 70 °C, extraction time of 161 min, and S/L ratio of 1:25 w/w.

Keywords: antioxidant activity; hydrophilic NADES; hydrophobic NADES; polyphenols; sour cherry kernels.

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants* / chemistry
  • Antioxidants* / pharmacology
  • Deep Eutectic Solvents* / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Polyphenols* / chemistry
  • Polyphenols* / isolation & purification
  • Prunus avium* / chemistry
  • Solvents / chemistry


  • Polyphenols
  • Antioxidants
  • Deep Eutectic Solvents
  • Plant Extracts
  • Solvents